Estimation of parameters (rate constants) in infectious disease models can be done either through literature or from clinical data. This article presents parameter estimation of a disease model from clinical data using the numerical integration followed by minimization of the error function. The error function is the overall sum of squared distances between the model-fitted points and the corresponding clinical data points at certain time points. Numerical integration was done using written Mat lab code using ode15s solver because of stiff nature of the disease models. Minimization of the error function was also done through a written Mat lab code using Mat lab routine “fmincon”.
The dispersion of a solute matter in the magneto-hydrodynamic peristaltic pumping of an incompressible couple stress fluid with wall effects has been studied. The mean effective coecient of dispersion on simultaneous homogeneous, heterogeneous chemical reaction has been obtained through long wavelength assumption and condition of Taylor's limit. The impacts of penetrating parameters on the mean effective dispersion coecient have been examined through the graphs. It is found that wall constraints and amplitude ratio favor the scattering, while couple stress and magnetic eld constraints resist the scattering during pumping.
This paper discusses optimally controlled economic growth models with linear aggregate production function of capital and labour. It compares and contrasts real per capita income performance over time in situations where the labour (population) growth dynamics vary from purely exponential to strongly logistic. The study seeks to identify, by means of analytical and qualitative methods, as well as numerical simulations, the causal factors and parameters, particularly population related ones, which induce qualitative changes in the performance of real per capita income over time. Furthermore, the paper discusses the concept of maximum sustainable population growth for the models and the conditions for exiting the Malthusian trap. Consumption per (effective) labour is used as the control variable, and capital per (effective) labour, as state variable, whereas income per (effective) labour is considered the output variable. A time-discounted welfare functional is applied as the models’ objective functional, maximized subject to a differential equation in the control and state variables. Each system is found to be controllable and observable. The models’ simulation results are reasonably intuitive and realistic. The results also indicate that, consistently, real per capita income grows faster and generates greater time values, however marginal, as the population growth dynamics tends increasingly logistic.
The theory of FK spaces was introduced by Zeller in  and some properties of sectional subspaces in FK spaces were investigated by Zeller in . The notion of Cesàro sections in FK spaces was studied in . In , Buntinas examined Toeplitz sections in sequence spaces and characterized some properties. In this paper, we introduce Riesz sections in sequence spaces and examine some properties of them.
In this paper, we introduce and study the notion of kernal operator in fuzzy soft bitopological space. Moreover, some important results related to this notion are obtained. Furthermore, we introduce the concept of Alexandroff fuzzy soft topology and the concept of Ƭ1Ƭ2-Λ-fuzzy soft sets is presented and it is proved that the family of all Ƭ1Ƭ2-Λ-fuzzy soft sets is an Alexandroff fuzzy soft topology. In addition, we introduce and characterize a new type of fuzzy soft sets in a fuzzy soft bitopological spaces namely Ƭ1Ƭ2-λ-fuzzy soft closed set and investigate some of its basic properties. Finally, comparisons between these fuzzy soft sets are obtained.