In this paper, we t the hyper-Poisson, and the Mittag-Leer function (MLFD) distributions to data exhibiting over and under dispersion. Three frequency data sets were employed with one exhibiting under-dispersion. We also extend these distributions to GLM situations where we have a set of covariates de ned in the form x′β. In all, we compared the negative-binomial (NB), the generalized Poisson (GP), the Conway-Maxwell Poisson (COMP), the Hyper-Poisson (HP) and the MLFD models to the selected data sets. The generalized linear model (GLM) data employed in this study is the German national health registry data which has 3874 observations with 41.56% being zeros-thus the data is zero-inflated.
Our results contrast the results from these various distributions. Further, theoretical means and variances of each model are computed together with their corresponding empirical means and variances. It was obvious that the two do not match for each of our data sets. The reason being that the models all have infinite range of values than the random variable Y can take, but the data has a finite range of values. It is therefore not unusual for the sum of estimated probabilities being less than 1.00 and consequently, the sum of the expected values are usually less that the sample size n. However, if the range of values of Y are extended beyond the given data value,both theoretical and empirical moments as expected would be equal. We explore an alternative model for one of the data set. In contrast, most results in the literature sometimes just assume that the last category k has probability which does not truly reflect the underlying probability structure from the data. We have employed SAS PROC NLMIXED in all our computations in this paper with the choice optimization algorithm being the conjugate gradient algorithm. We also computed the Wald test statistic for each data based on both the theoretical and empirical means and variances.
Our results extend previous results on the analyzes of the chosen data in this example. Further, results obtained here indicate that some results in earlier studies on the data employed in this study may be in accurate. In others, our results are consistent with previous analyses on the data sets chosen for this article. While we do not pretend that the results obtained are entirely new, however, the analyses give opportunities to researchers in the eld the opportunity of implementing these models in SAS.
Software-Defined Networking (SDN) has become a significant topic of discussion among the network service providers, operators, and equipment vendors where control planes are separated from the data plane in networking devices. This paper implements Bellman-Ford algorithm for computing the shortest path in Software-Defined Networking using Mininet emulator. Bellman–Ford algorithm computes shortest paths from a single source vertex to all of the other vertices in a weighted digraph. This algorithm is versatile, as it is capable of handling graphs in which some of the edge weights are negative numbers. All the simulation has been done using POX as an OpenFlow controller, OpenvSwitch (OVS) as a forwarding function and Mininet which installed on Ubuntu Virtual Machine (VM). The result of this paper shows that the simulation of SDN with OpenvSwitch (OVS) and POX controller runs Bellman-Ford algorithm for finding the minimum path among the designed network topology.
The microcontrollers are very common components in modern electronic systems. Their using is so widespread that it is almost impossible to work in electronics without coming across it. They are now providing us with a new way of designing circuits. As a result, less complex applications can be designed and built quickly and cheaply. These devices are low-cost and easy to be programmed. They have traditionally been programmed using assembly as well as high-level languages. In this regard, very complex control algorithms can be developed and implemented on the microcontrollers. The PIC is one of the most popular embedded real-time computers used in educational, commercial and industrial applications. Owing to its ease of programming and easy to interfacing with other peripherals, PIC became successful microcontroller.
This paper is devoted to practical hardware circuit design of educational PIC 16F877A microcontroller including: DC-motor (turn right and left), display a counter using seven-segment, and traffic light control system using LED's. Many other user applications can be developed and implemented to the Kit. Moreover, we develop a PIC simulator using Matlab software package which is capable to test, verify, and validate a user program loaded file. The input loaded file can be written either in high level language (micro-C) or in hexadecimal (H-file) file format. The different outputs of the implemented circuits are shown in virtual load of the developed simulator. The output window of this simulator contains the address of the RAM memory location, data, assembly instruction along with its op-code, and description of each instruction in such a way that the user can understand, keep track and follow the program easily.
Timetabling is the task of assigning sets of events to periods of time, taking into account resource-constraints and preferences among assignments. This involves combinatorial optimization, time-based planning, in order to realize a highly constrained problems that addresses a multi-dimensional complexities. This paper investigated the use of activity matrix to reduce the complexity of timetabling and applying genetic algorithm to resolving Colleges of Education Timetabling Problem. In this study, Course, Rooms and Time slots are represented in the form of a multidimensional array. On this is applied certain genetic operators such as crossover operator in a manner that does not violate the hard constraints and then a local is performed to obtain an optimal solution. The fittest solution (optimum timetable) is then displayed as the final timetable. Based on the evaluation carried out on the completed system it was revealed that the completed system worked effectively well.
The aim of this paper is to consider as a starting point the value E0 = π in the theorems of semilocal convergence of Kantorovich, Gutiérrez, α−theory of Smale and the α−theory of Wang-Zhao, to compare the convergence conditions obtained. Once set E0, one should calculate the parameters listed in the statement of these theorem. So, we will generalize the study of Diloné-Gutiérrez for the case E0 = M. Numeric and graphic calculations were obtained by applying Mathematica V10.