This research paper is study of ACO based routing protocols proposed for Wireless Sensor Networks by various researchers. The protocols comprehensively compared via this research paper are: Ant Colony Based Energy Aware Multipath Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks (ACO-EAMRA), Improvised Ant Colony Routing (IACR), Efficient Minimum Cost Bandwidth Constrained Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks (EMCBR) and AntChain Protocol. Extensive study on simulations are made on different scenarios and simulation time on Random Way Point Mobility Model for all protocols. The results show that overall IACR is best among all the other protocols to the extent about 30-40% better in terms of Packet Delivery, Energy Efficiency and maintaining overall robustness and scalability of Wireless Sensor Networks.
This paper uses a point model of cylindrical box wrapped by zero-weighted membrane to derive a wind speed equation of circular cyclone by method of section based on Boyle’s law, Charles’ law and Newton’s laws. The obtained equation is a non-linear partial differential equation (PDE) with two unknown functions, seldom seen in literatures. The obtained vertical motion is upward which has been confirmed by a recorded video; and it also shows that the mass of air approaches to zero at isothermal layer where the temperature keeps unchanged for any height in the layer.
We calculate the posterior distributions, the marginal distributions and the normal Bayes estimators of three hierarchical normal models in the same manner. The three models are displayed in increasing complexity. We find that the posterior distributions and the marginal distributions are all normal distributions. We also obtain the normal Bayes estimators under the squared error loss function.
In this paper, we obtain the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability of a new cubic reciprocal functional equation of the form
in non-Archimedean elds with We also extend the results related to Hyers-Ulam stability, Hyers-Ulam-Rassias stability, Ulam-Gavruta-Rassias stability and J.M. Rassias stability controlled by the mixed product-sum of powers of norms for the same equation.
The human cochlea is the part of the inner ear where acoustic signals are transformed into neural pulses and then signaled to the brain. The cochlear amplifier is essentially a positive feedback loop within the cochlea that amplifies the traveling wave, this mechanism based on the cochlea's microanatomy, as well as, outer hair cell force, to account for the cochlea's characteristic behavior. A proposed theory of the active cochlea that the feed-forward/feed-backward are two mechanisms for the outer hair cell force amplification where an expanding hair cell gives a forward push through the Deiters Cells and a backward pull on the Basilar membrane through the Phalangeal process.Many important questions of cochlea mechanics are mathematically complicated, however, they can be studied using numerical simulations. Genetic mutations of type IV collagen lead to a malfunction of Basilar Membrane, resulting in the hearing loss associated with Alport Syndrome, which is a disease that affects the cochlea due to the abnormal structure of the Basilar Membrane (it becomes stiffer). Therefore, a mathematical model of the BM was developed to investigate and show numerically the effect of the stiffness on its structure with the objective to study the ear dysfunction in the active cochlea.