Aim: To examine the suitability of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) in predicting infant mortality and compare its performance with Logistic Regression (LR) model.
Study Design: A cross-sectional population based study was conducted. The 2013 Nigeria Demographic Health Survey (NDHS) data were used.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Nigeria and the fieldwork was carried out from February 15, 2013, to May 31, 2013.
Methodology: Data were partitioned into training and testing sets with ratio 7:3. Logistic and ANN models were fitted on the training set and were validated using the testing sample. Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and Area under curve (AUC) were used as criteria for comparing the two models. The discriminative ability was measured using sensitivity and specificity. Variable importance analysis was also conducted to determine the magnitude of contribution of each predictor to the outcome.
Results: The sensitivity of the classification model was 67% and 76% for the LR and the ANN models respectively. Specificity of the prediction was 94% for the two models. Overall accuracy was approximately 81% and 83% for LR and ANN respectively. The AIC values were 9462 and 9614 for ANN model and LR model respectively. Area under curve was 0.621 and 0.637 for the LR model and the ANN model respectively. The variable importance analysis showed that preceding birth interval less than 24 months and not receiving tetanus toxoid injection during pregnancy had the highest positive contribution to infant mortality.
Conclusion: The artificial neural network model had a higher sensitivity than the logistic regression model. Preceding birth interval of less than 24 months and non-reception of tetanus toxoid injection by mothers’ during pregnancy were important predictors of infant mortality in Nigeria.
A graph labeling is a mapping that carries a set of graph elements onto a set of numbers called labels (usually the set of integers). In this paper we prove the existence of graph labeling such as E- cordial, total E- cordial, product E-cordial, total product E-cordial, Prime E- cordial and E3- cordial labeling for the extended duplicate graph of Comb graph by presenting algorithms.
Aims/ objectives: In this paper we consider the Sturm-Liouville equation with block-triangular, increasing at infinity operator potential. For him, built a fundamental system of solutions, one of which is decreasing at infinity, and the second is growing. We present asymptotics these solutions. Using the decreasing at infinity of the solutions initial equation and the left equation of the corresponding him, for non-self-adjoint operator generated by such differential expression obtained by series expansion of the Green's function.
Nigeria is among the developing countries in the world with almost 60% of its population residing in remote areas where health care facilities are insufficient. The latest advancements in the field of computing and information technology especially mobile devices provide a significant opportunity to the rising countries to enlarge a health infrastructure that addresses the needs of the rural population. In this paper, we implement our model for Online Antenatal Consultation System Based on UML and Web Engineering Approach using Dreamweaver Cascading style 6 (CS6) as the front end while PHP serve as the scripting language, while using Cross-platform Apache HTTP Server MySql PHP Perl (XAMPP) server and MySql as the backend. Skype technology was embedded in the application to provide video and voice interaction between expert physician and the nurses in the rural areas as well as the pregnant women in the cities. The aim is to provide a cost efficient and effective antenatal care to the patients residing in the remote areas of Nigeria. In scrupulous, we have at first selected the domain of antenatal care because of disturbing mother mortality rate of Nigeria.
The restricted four-body problem consists of an infinitesimal particle which is moving under the Newtonian gravitational attraction of three massive bodies, called primaries. The three bodies are moving in circles around their common centre of mass fixed at the origin of the coordinate system, according to the solution of Lagrange, where they are always at the vertices of an equilateral triangle. The fourth body does not affect the motion of the primaries. We consider that the primary body P1is dominant and is a source of radiation while the other two small primaries P2 and P3 modeled as oblate spheroids have equal masses and oblateness coefficients. The out of equilibrium points of the problem are sought and we found that such critical points exist. These points lie in the xz - plane in symmetrical positions with respect to xy - plane. We investigate numerically the effects of radiation and oblateness on the positions of out-of-plane equilibrium points, their stability, as well as the regions allowed to motion of the infinitesimal body as determined by the zero velocity surface. It is found that radiation and oblateness have strong effects on the positions of the critical points. We examined the stability of these points and found that the out of plane equilibrium points are unstable.
Unsteady MHD free convective flow past an exponentially accelerated inclined plate has been investigated in the presence of radiation, Dufour and Soret effect. The usual transformations have used to get governing equations in dimensionless form. Then the obtained dimensionless equations are solved numerically employing conditionally stable explicit finite difference scheme. The stability and convergence test have been delimitated to find out the restriction of parametric values. To obtain the numerical results, the Computer programming language Fortran 6.6a has been used. The effects of flow parameters involved in the solution on velocity, temperature, concentration, streamlines and isotherms have been explicated graphically and discussed qualitatively. Also, the parameters of technical interest have been presented graphically. From the present analysis it is concluded that the presence of radiation increases the velocity and temperature profiles but decreases the concentration profiles. It is also noted that the increase in angle of inclination and chemical reaction lead to decrease in velocity profiles. The results of velocity, temperature and concentration are compared with available result in literature and are found to be in excellent agreement.
An optimal estimator in the light of future data (i.e., a predictive estimator) is obtained using numerical simulations. The predictive estimator is assumed to be one of various functions of the maximum likelihood estimator. We then formulate an estimator that yields better results than the maximum likelihood estimator when the parameters are located within a specific range. Using this method, we derive a predictive estimator for the geometric distribution. This procedure leads to a predictive estimator that outperforms the maximum likelihood estimator in terms of the expected log-likelihood when the parameter is known to be located within a certain range.