Aims: In this paper we present a prototype of a computational system, running on the web, for the estimation of environmental impact caused by urban development. The system represents and manipulates the expert knowledge of the environmental impact domain through the collaborative interaction of two important artificial intelligence techniques: expert systems and neural networks. Methodology: We used an environmental impact estimation methodology based on three phases that are: the identification, characterization and evaluation of the environmental impact. Specifically, the system uses heuristic rules for the identification of environmental impacts; neural networks for the impacts characterization and decision algorithms for their evaluation. Results: The main result of this work is a prototype of a computational platform, highly visual and interactive, that provides the user with a continuous availability of knowledge and procedures used by experts for the analysis and the assessment of environmental impacts. The user provides the system with previously recollected data of environmental scenarios, and the system produces estimations about the possible negative consequences entailed by a new urban project. Conclusion: We represented and implemented the expert knowledge and procedures for the estimation of environmental impact. We discussed the design and implementation of a computational system that provides support to the estimation of environmental impacts generated by urban development. This estimation is very important because it allows proposing measures that reduce, eliminate or compensate significant environmental impacts.
Least-cost allocation of redundancy within subsystems of a series-parallel system to meet a requirement for system reliability may be modelled as a nonlinear integer program in which the number of variables is equal to the number of subsystems. The data are the system requirement, the reliabilities of the identical components within each subsystem and the costs of these components. The model has a linear cost function as its objective and a single non-linear constraint that enforces the requirement for system reliability. The continuous counterpart of the discrete problem can be solved by solving a polynomial equation. The main result of this paper is a bound on the effort required to obtain from the solution of the continuous relaxation the optimal numbers of redundant components for the subsystems.
A mobile ad-hoc network is a collection of mobiles nodes forming an ad-hoc network without the assistance of any centralized structures . It is a collection of communication devices or nodes that wish to communicate without any fixed infrastructure and pre-determined organization of available links. The nodes in mobile ad-hoc network themselves are responsible for dynamically discovering other nodes to communicate. As a result of certain unique properties in mobile ad-hoc networks, the on-going trends in the communication industries is advancing towards the adoption of ad-hoc networks for commercial and security issues. This subsequently exposes mobile ad-hoc networks to various external attacks from un-authorized bodies. This paper is segmented into various sections; the first section introduces the reader to the concept of MANETs and gives account of its level of vulnerability to intruders’ attack; the second section addresses sources of threats posed to wireless network, the threat involved, the types and effects of threats. In the same line of progression, comprehensive details were given on statement of problems with special focus on the weakness on the existing researches in respect to improving security on mobile ad-hoc networks. Further, the content of the paper explains the motivation of study and later sheds light on the research objectives. Subsequently, details were given on the significance of study; that is, the dividends of this research on various application areas. The next section makes an explicit highlight about the existing models of Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS), giving a concise account of their area of strengths and weaknesses. The tail end of the paper introduces the working concept of a 3-phase commit protocol and how this concept was modeled to stand as a three in one intrusion detection systems algorithm, integrating the functionalities of the three notable existing intrusion detection systems (IDS): CONFIDANT, OCEAN and CORE. Subsequently, I describe the implementation concept of IIDSA, giving rational for picking on 3-phase commit protocol as a viable instrument in its plight to sieve out malicious nodes in a multi-user network.
Phishing is a form of online fraud that aims to steal a user’s sensitive information such as online banking passwords or credit card numbers. In this paper, we present a technique to quickly detect suspicious email using Neural Network Pruning approach. The goal is to determine whether the email is suspicious or legitimate. A Multilayer feedforward neural network with Pruning Strategy is used for Feature Extraction and extracted features are used for identifying email as phishing email. Pruning Strategy extracts important features which are playing a key role in identifying phishing mail which looks similar to a legitimate one. To verify the feasibility of the proposed approach experimental evaluation has been performed using a dataset composed of phishing emails along with legitimate emails. The experimental results are satisfactory in terms of false positives and false negatives. The results of conducted test indicated good identification rate with very short processing time.
This paper presents a fuzzy approach for solving a three-decision maker’s model and presents how to solve three–level chance constraints quadratic programming problem. After converting probabilistic nature of the constraints to equivalence deterministic constraints each level attempts to optimize its problem separately using fuzzy programming technique, in this method the tolerance and membership function concepts are used to develop Tchebycheff problem for generating Pareto optimal solution for this problem. Finally, a numerical example is given to clarify the main results developed in this paper.
In this paper, we study the boundary behavior of solution to the singular Dirichlet problem
where Ω is a bounded domain with smooth boundary in RN, λ ∈ R,m > 1, 0 < q ≤ m/(m - 1), lims→0+ g(s) = +∞, and b ∈ Ca(Ω), which is non-negative on Ω and may be vanishing on the boundary, mainly, we investigate the exact asymptotic behavior of solution to the above problem.
Since the development and success of the first computer built from transistors in 1955, the quest for faster computers and computations have brought about various technological advancement in the way computers are built and the techniques involved in programming these computers. These trends have seen a radical change in speed, size and power consumption of these computers. A general observation can be seen from the sequential hardware/programs of the early 80s and 90s to the parallel hardware/programs of the present day 21th century computers. In all, there has been a tremendous improvement in computational speedup, size and energy consumed by these computers. This paper discusses these technological innovations/advancements in computer hardware and architecture leading to parallel computers, starting from the first sequential computer to the parallel computers available today with a focus on the key issues that led to the shift in the ways these computers were built, the limitations and future developments. It also discusses the programming models adopted for these parallel computers and how their limitations and gains contribute to a shift in ideology and higher speedup of computations.