Universities play an important role in the social and economical development of a country. Therefore, governments usually provide the financial resources universities need. On the other hand, universities should be efficient in satisfying the government's conditions of functional resources. Finding a transparent and systematic way to distributing the funds to each university is a major challenge for government. With participation in higher education amongst young people rising, governments around the world have been faced with increasing pressure on their finances, giving rise to the need to operate universities with a higher degree of efficiency. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is a powerful method widely used in the evaluation of performance of Decision Making Units (DMUs). These can be business units, government agencies, police departments, hospitals, educational institutions, and even people DEA have been used in the assessment of athletic, sales and student performance). This paper provides an introduction to DEA and some important methodological extensions that have improved its effectiveness as a productivity analysis tool. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) techniques are used to estimate technical and scale efficiency of individual Saudi Arabia universities 2010. The purpose of this paper is to present basic principles of DEA and evaluate its application possibilities to assess the performance of nineteen Saudi Arabia universities. DEA is a choice between constant returns to scale CRS and variable returns to scale VRS. The CRS efficiency score represents technical efficiency, which measures inefficiencies due to input/output configuration and as well as size of operations. On the other hand, the VRS efficiency score represent pure technical efficiency, that is, a measure of efficiency without scale efficiency. The results found that the number of universities with maximum relative efficiency was ten out of nineteen universities when CRS was used. The number of universities with maximum relative efficiency was fifteen out of nineteen universities when VRS was used. The percentage of inefficiency was determined for each inefficient university, together with the extent of inputs that could be reduced and the extent of outputs that could be increased in these universities in order for them to be fully efficient.
This paper establishes that: a formally instituted and consistently applied attendance management system significantly reduces absence levels. It further establishes that: the effectiveness of an attendance management system depends largely on the monitoring, recording, measuring, and reporting of attendance statistics. The paper then affirms that: computer based technologies will be suitable for implementing such systems, since they possess the capacity for effectively performing the listed tasks, as well as producing information for making prompt, informed, and consistent decisions across organisational units. However, the paper discovers that generalizable standards for building these systems are lacking in the literature, due to the obscuring of the internal logic of the existing systems, which are also strategically organisation-centric. The paper therefore, emphasises the need to shift from organisation-centric to process-centric (inter-organisational) approaches. Consequently, it introduces a set of systematic drivers (algorithms, flowcharts, structure chart, and mathematical models), for building new systems, rather than discussing the features of a black-box oriented system that may not have complied adequately with the software engineering best practices. This paper is thus, providing opportunities for broader scientific evaluations, development of sound evidence-based guidelines, and rational framework for on-going modification and refinement in the future. It will therefore, lead to the implementation of systems that serve as benchmarks for producing data, which is valid, reliable, subject to scrutiny, modifiable, and generalizable to the needs of the global stakeholders.
In this paper, the concept of countably C-approximating posets is introduced. Properties and characterizations of countably C-approximating posets are presented. Main results are: (1) the lattice of all σ-Scott-closed subsets for any poset is countably C-approximating; (2) a complete lattice is completely distributive iff it is countably approximating and countably C-approximating.
Let Zn be the commutative ring of residue classes modulo n, Γ(Zn) the zero divisor graph of Zn and L(Γ(Zn) be the line graph of Γ(Zn). We have studied the point covering number and independence number of L(Γ(Zn)), for some positive integer n. We have computed edge covering number for L(Γ(Zpq), and establish the relation among point covering, independence number and edge covering number of L(Γ(Zpq), where p and q are prime numbers.
Aims: Taking student attendance manually and maintaining it for a long time is a difficult task as well as wastes a lot of time. In this paper an Educational Time and Attendance Management System (EduTAMS) that will record and manage the time and attendance of students in a university community was developed. Study Design: The system was implemented using C# and Microsoft SQL Server 2008, and was tested using electronic fingerprint scanner which was interfaced to the digital computer system for verifying student identity. Place and Duration of Study: The students of University of Agriculture Abeokuta, Nigeria fingerprint attendance were captured during the 2012 academic session. Methodology: The system comprises of four main modules namely; fingerprint capture, fingerprint processing, fingerprint matching and database while the deployment structure of the system also consists of four major segments; Fingerprint Terminals, Database Server, Access Workstations and Network Service. EduTAMS uses fingerprint technology to authenticate every student. A fingerprint recognition system uses the distinctive and persistent characteristics from the ridges, also referred to as fingerprint features, to distinguish one person from another. Results: When eduTAM was compared with the manual method, the result shows that the average time taken per student using fingerprint based attendance and manual attendance register are 6.65 and 23.66 seconds respectively. Conclusion: The performance of the eduTAM system shows that it provides robust, secured and automatic time and attendance management system for Students.
Downward movement of solid particles within a fluid in the presence of a gravitational field occurs in many industrial and engineering processes, e.g. particulate processing and two phase solid-liquid applications. Three highly viscous liquids including water, glycerin and ethylene-glycol were selected to study the motion of spherical/non-spherical solid particles for a wide range of Reynolds numbers employing a drag coefficient as defined by Chien . The governing equation of the motion is strongly nonlinear due to the nonlinear nature of the drag force exerted on the solid body during falling. In this paper, a numerical technique, namely the Laplace Decomposition Method (LDM), is applied to solve the governing equation. This method applies the Laplace transform to the differential equation whereas the nonlinear term is decomposed in terms of Adomian polynomials. A good agreement was achieved when compared with a famous numerical method, then the effects of solid sphericity were tested for the different liquids. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the present mathematical technique and illustrates a simple application for this type of problem which may be used for a large class of nonlinear differential equations