Main Article Content
Fractured bone detection and categorization is currently receiving research attention in computer aided diagnosis system because of the ease it has brought to doctors in classification and interpretation of X-ray images. The choice of an efficient algorithm or combination of algorithms is paramount to accurately detect and categorize fractures in X-ray images, which is the first stage of diagnosis in treatment and correction of damaged bones for patients. This is what this research seeks to address. The research design involves data collection, preprocessing, segmentation, feature extraction, classification and evaluation of the proposed method. The sample dataset were x-ray images collected from the Department of Radiology, National Orthopedic Hospital, Igbobi-Lagos, Nigeria as well as Open Access Medical Image Repositories. The image preprocessing involves the conversion of images in RGB format to grayscale, sharpening and smoothing using Unsharp Masking Tool. The segmentation of the preprocessed image was carried out by adopting the Entropy method in the first stage and Canny edge method in the second stage while feature extraction was performed using Hough Transformation. Detection and classification of fracture image employed a combination of two algorithms; K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) for detecting fracture locations based on four classification types: (normal, comminute, oblique and transverse).Two performance assessment methods were employed to evaluate the developed system. The first evaluation was based on confusion matrix which evaluates fracture and non-fracture on the basis of TP (True Positive), TN (True negative), FP (False Positive) and FN (False Negative). The second appraisal was based on Kappa Statistics which evaluates the type of fracture by determining the accuracy of the categorized fracture bone type. The result of first assessment for fracture detection shows that 26 out of 40 preprocessed images were fractured, resulting to the following three values of performance metrics: accuracy value of 90%, sensitivity of 87% and specificity of 100%. The Kappa coefficient error assessment produced accuracy of 83% during classification. The proposed method can find suitable use in categorization of fracture types on different bone images based on the results obtained from the experiment.
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